NOt a one of those people wrote a damn thing in this paper. It was all me. It was for a business class. But you know business majors are fucking lazy and will never write their own papers. ALso fuck Chik-fil-a. But Falonne milemba owes me $175 for this paper. ALthough the other people on the paper could also pay me and charge her.
So hey - Atul Saxena, your students cheated. Do you still have the ability to punish them? I mean it's been 11 months but I was being patient. I was also tired and sick of this thing.
I mean if I keep writing Atul Saxena, it might come up in his google alerts. Or her google alerts. Sorry Atul Saxena, your students don't write their own papers.
Anyhow, more papers from Falonne Milemba coming up.
SHe even had the nerve to ask me for more work when she owed me money for this one.
Bringing Chick-fil-A to Australia
A Multinational Capital Budgeting Analysis
FINA 4101 International Finance
Professor: Atul Saxena
Table of Contents
Bringing Chik-fil-A to Australia …......................................................................................... 3
II. About Chik-fil-A
III. Initial Investment
IV. Price and Consumer Demand
VI. Tax Laws
VII. Remitted Funds
VIII. Exchange rate
IX. Salvage Value
X. Required rate of return
Table of Contents
Initial Investment 1
Price and Consumer Demand. 1
Tax Laws. 2
Remitted Funds. 2
Exchange rate. 2
Salvage Value. 2
Required Rate of return. 2
Analysis/Discussion Paragraph. 2
This report will discuss the details and important information regarding our team’s effort to expand a Chick-fil-A franchise into the Australian market. Chik Fil-A was founded in 1964. Chick-fil-A is a fast food chain, founded in Atlanta Georgia, and they are known for the creation of the Chick-fil-A sandwich, a pickle brined, fried chicken sandwich. The franchise prides itself on delivering consistently great sandwich and prompt service. Its mission statement is “To glorify God by being a faithful steward of all that is entrusted to us and to have a positive influence on all who come into contact with Chick-Fil-A.”We should be about more than just selling chicken. We should be a part of our customers’ lives and the communities in which we serve.” This statement has proven problematic in some ventures.
Chick-Fil-A has courted controversy by being the homophobic chicken fast food place. This controversy tends to rise and fall with certain political forces. The television show The Good Place would often have jokes about a chicken sandwich that you can’t eat without being homophobic. Currently the news concerning Chick-Fil-A does not focus on the homophobic philosophy of the corporate masters but on the openings. A great deal of this has to do with the political landscape focusing on a pandemic and police brutality. Chick-Fil-A has been successful in controlling the narrative of its new stores with most news stories concerned with the new venues. The most recent news story without that perspective concerned a potential violent incident. “Police say the suspect, an employee at the Limestone Correctional Facility, reportedly began shouting about the victim’s vehicle not being pulled far enough forward. They say the victim got out of their vehicle but did not approach the suspect’s vehicle. That’s when the suspect is accused of showing a gun.” (Thusius 2020).
The possibility of gun incidents in Chick-Fil-A represents an acceptable risk, especially in Australia when the risk is lessened by the different culture in Australia. Still the political picture of Chick-Fil-A as a rightwing Christian corporation can be an issue. However, there are many considerations for opening a new investment within Australia that can be made without worrying too unduly about the social conservatism.
This report will discuss the initial investment required and costs associated with opening a location in Australia followed by a detail regarding menu prices and revenue projections. The report will also discuss tax laws and remitting funds/ legal restrictions associated with operating in the Australian markets. The next section of the report will discuss the legal compliance of the business; the report will discuss exchange rates, salvage value, and the required rate of return. This will be followed by an analysis that will focus on the results and numbers.
Even though there was a failure of branding in the UK, Australia seems to be more willing to take on Chick-Fil-A as a new venture in fast food. Not only is there already a Chick-Fil-A in Melbourne, but Chick-Fil-A is making news in Australia for a willingness to address racial tensions. “The fast-food chain CEO got up and shined the shoes of Lecrae, a Black Christian rapper, and said that the world needs to have a sense of shame, embarrassment, and “an apologetic heart.” (Ciment 2020). While this action has garnered some criticism, it also shows a willingness to listen to matters concerning inequality. This has been the topic of discussion in Australian news services.
Thus, there is a great deal of interest in Chick-Fil-A franchises in Australia. Since American fast food companies like McDonald’s and Subway have had success in Australia, Chick-Fil-A should go heavily into the Australian markets with a strong show of markets. In this way, Chick-Fil-A will find a great way towards market saturation.
The initial investment for market penetration into Australia should be $4 million. This totals $5.72 million in current exchange rates. A franchise in Australia costs approximately $60,000. Chick Fil-A would like to open twenty initial locations throughout Australia as flagship restaurants. The remaining moneys will be for overhead including an advertising campaign as well as a public relationship blitz.
Price and Consumer Demand
The estimated price for the initial investment is as follows
20 franchises (includes rent, equipment, etc.) $1.2 million
Office Equipment and Space 750,000
Retail Supplies 150,000
Marketing 1.2 million
The initial figures are estimates based on the ways that Australian branch of Chick-Fil-A needs a separate office in order to work in the Australian culture. The corporate office in Australia will provide support to all franchises in the form of orders, manufacturing of sauces and equipment. The office workers will also include legal representatives and marketing.
Marketing and PR will be an essential component in the Australian venture as Australia is a new market and there’s a reputation that Chick-Fil-A has garnered throughout the world. Australia has recently legalized marriage equality. However, there are still LGBT issues that would help Chick-Fil-A such as the fact that there are “existing exemptions that allow religious schools to discriminate against LGBT students, teachers, staff and contract workers (these federal exemptions do not apply on the basis of intersex status).” (Elphick 2019).
Should Chick-Fil-A stop being known as the homophobic chicken place, this will not be an issue. However, as Chick-Fil-A keeps donating money to anti-LGBT causes, there is a need for a public relations team to mitigate the negative effects. Definitely, Australia is not necessarily as performative as the UK when it comes to social justice issues, but that doesn’t mean that Australia is going to uniformly ignore the implications of Chick-Fil-A.
Recently, Chick Fil-A created a new charitable model that supports groups “that work in the areas of education, homelessness, and hunger.” (Mehta 2019). This will be good for the brand and the charitable organizations will be able to help in the brand image and therefore the marketing budget should make certain to help the fact that Chick-Fil-A can avoid boycotts.
Insurance and Legal are both going to be an issue especially when it comes to the recent wildbush fires that have been tearing Australia apart. The fires that have been raging throughout the Australian summer months have proven to be a horrible tragedy in many ways, not the least of which being the potential for burning down businesses. There are ways of mitigating fires but for the most part, Chick-Fil-A should be prepared for the inevitable burning of some of the franchise locations. This would also require that Chick-Fil-A buys enough insurance to cover the buildings and the materials. There is a definite possibility that the insurance companies would declare the fire to be a work of God.
The costs for labor are included in the franchise and will be the minimum wages as allowed by Australia. Should the need arise, an additional $100,000 will be put to public relations, training and employee appreciation seminars that allows them to know that they are part of one big family in a Christian context. Emphasis will be placed on the fact that unions are un-Christian and the fact that corporate controls the means of production.
There are several costs that will have to do with operation and the ways that the franchise owners will be part of the Chick-Fil-A family. As family members, Chick-Fil-A needs to be able to work with the owners in order to help them. Chick-Fil-A needs to take care of its family and if the owners fall down, Chick-Fil-A needs to pick them up and therefore make certain that there is a fund in order to let the managers fail without falling into poverty.
Furthermore, there are variable costs for extra office space. The current plan is to have one office and be able to work within the office in many parts including air conditioners and employee morale. Costs include rent, workers, pencils and exterminators.
Standard tax rate in Australia is 30%. The U.S. government will allow a tax credit on taxes paid in a foreign nation, including Australia. Currently Australia is attempting to stop “companies from diverting profits overseas” (Khadem 2017). In 2016, the standard tax loophole involved paying the Asia Pacific for a reduced tax bill and using a service fee. As a corporation, Chick-Fil-A is capable of paying service fees and basing its payments in Georgia, but constantly moving the corporate headquarters to reflect new tax realities and avoid paying as much in taxes as possible.
There might be an issue of asking whether Chick-Fil-A is paying its fair share of taxes, which could arise given hostile reactions to Chick-Fil-A throughout the world. However, Chick-Fil-A is more than capable of paying a significant amount to local tax designations. The tax transparency acts of the government may prove problematic but there’s a great deal of corporate tax issues.
There’s also a government sales tax (GST) on the food that is going to be sold. This means that the food that we are serving will be subject to a sales tax and that’s definitely part of the price of doing business. Of course, the sales tax will have to be either absorbed by the prices or it will be added. Either way the definite tax is part of doing business.
One issue when it comes to taxes is the fact that there’s a health tax. “Australia’s Obesity Policy Coalition had called for the imposition of a fat tax on a range of unhealthy food items, including junk food as the country battles to keep its residents weight in check” (Sachitanand 2016). Even though McDonald’s is getting around such fast food taxes, this could very well be part of the ways that we work within the context of a tax service.
The subsidiary plans to send net cash flows back to the parent firm at the end of each year. The Australian government does not place restrictions on cash flows back to parent company, with the exception of audits in order to make certain that no money is being laundered for the purpose of terrorism, human trafficking or organized crime.
However, there should be a great deal of money that is left in the company and central office in Australia. One thing about being in Australia is that if we are going to have this many franchises in Australia, we are going to need to be able to work within the context of a central branch. This means that there should be enough money within the Australian office. However, anything that is above and beyond the needs of the immediate franchises will be remitted back on an annual basis.
The spot exchange rate for an Australian dollar is $1.43 Australian dollars for every $1 U.S. dollar. This also means that 1 Australian dollar is $0.69 U.S. dollars. In the past two years, this exchange rate has been fairly consistent as the U.S. dollar has been as low as 68 cents on an Australian dollar and as high as 70 cents. The Australian dollar is a pretty stable currency. It also extends throughout the territories of Pacific Island states and abbreviated to AU. Australia used to have a pound note or an Australian pound note.
Due to the fact that the dollar is based on the metric system and easier to replace, Austrlai changed it to the dollar in 1966, The Australian dollar is the most traded currency or one of the most traded currencies due to the fact that there are high interest rates in Australia and there’s freedom in foreigh exchange. Furthermore, the Australian economy is stable.
This means that the investment in Australia will be healthy in terms of stretching the money. More importantly, there will be few surprises when it comes to the rate of return. The Australian dollar is not likely to collapse because Australia has a stable government, as opposed to the United States which is being rocked by instability and may not survive the next year.
Australia will pay 40% to assume ownership of any subsidiaries at the end for four years. Assume that there will be no capital gains for subsidiaries. Most Chick-Fil-A business expenses have a high salvage value from cash registers to oil to trucks. Chick-Fil-A plans on leasing and renting most business items, but there is a high percentage of Chick-Fil-A brand items including the napkins, the cups, the tables.
The tables can be sold on the international table market. There are many Chick-Fil-A fans who really want to have the tables in their homes. The Chick-Fil-A table market is a strong one that keeps the company in a total market standard. In the future, Chick-Fil-A hopes to have a long and enduring legacy in the marketing of kitsch Chick-Fil-A brand products. Therefore it is theoretically possible that salvaged Chick-Fil-A franchises will yield a herd of investors who are eager to buy up as much Chick-Fil-A brand tables and cups as possible in order to improve their investment that will appreciate in the same way that Coca-Cola and McDonald’s related products.
Required Rate of return
Chick Fil-A should make a 10 percenter return on the first year and requires a 15 percent return on later years. Chick-Fil-A has a great market saturation in America and this is part of its strength. However, Chick-Fil-A needs time to work within the international markets. The failure of Chick-Fil-A to penetrate the British markets is part of a great deal of adjustment on the part of the company.
As Chick-Fil-A will retain its company standard as the company for evangelical Christians, it will de-emphasize the LGBT stances and emphasize the stances toward charitable giving and racial justice. This should have an impact in the Australian markets as its not entirely clear what the future will hold. Chick-Fil-A could end up giving to a charity that turns out to support conversion therapy. Chick-Fil-A could end up partnering with an author like JK Rowling or Orson Scott Card for a seemingly innocuous literacy charity only to have the author turn around and spout some seriously anti-LGBT material that will tarnish the Chick-Fil-A brand. This will be especially problematic since Chick-Fil-A operated under a cloud of anti-LGBT charitable donations for years and is trying to change its image to something less conspicuous. Every charity that Chick-Fil-A supports that is anti-LGBT adjacent will ruin the hard work of the marketing and PR departments in rebranding Chick-Fil-A as a family friendly company that might not approve of LGBT issues but certainly won’t work to end LGBT rights in the host countries.
Therefore Chick-Fil-A needs to be patient when it comes to rate of return for new ventures such as the ability of the host country to fully absorb a chicken company that is known for both a commitment to Jesus and a commitment to making the best tasting chicken sandwiches in the world. So it may not need an immediate rate of return in order to judge the Australia venture in its full complexity, but eventually it will require a rate of return consistent with the standard business practices of a chicken place that needs to sell chicken.
Chick Fil-A is a juggernaut in the American fast food industry but has had trouble expanding into international businesses, partially due to its Christian branding, but also due to the ability of chicken sandwiches to translate to other cultures. Since Australia is primarily build upon European cultures, the chicken sandwich is still going to be popular. There might be a bigger risk in Australia due to the fact that since Chick-fil-A “doesn’t require candidates meet a threshold for net worth or liquid assets” (Peterson 2017). However, Chick-Fil-A has several rules that will allow for risks. Australia has a great interest in Chick-Fil-A.
Australia on the other hand, is a happy land full of kangaroos and koala bears. Granted, many of those kangaroos and koala bears spent the last few years burning up in fires but the koalas will be back. If there are no koalas in Australia, at very least Australia will receive all the benefits of a new chick restaurant.
With Australia, Chick-Fil-A has an unprecedented opportunity to place its market into a nation that is one of the largest growing markets. Australia has a conservative government that will create a business friendly environment while there is a definite social conservatism that will allow Chick-Fil-A to prosper due to its particular stances when it comes to family values. Finally Chick-Fil-A can help out with the fires which will go far towards placing Chick-Fil-A into a higher social standing within the nation. This will also allow the franchises to work criticism free for many years.
The world of the Chick-Fil-A is a kind world, a wonderful world. It is a world that will allow for a great deal of charity and Jesus. Australia is a wonderful place where people love chicken. They are already eating those chicken sandwiches and they are eating chicken from one Chick-Fil-A. They are the most amazing chicken eaters on the planet. They also don’t have sex with kangaroos. Our research has looked into this rumor and apparently it’s simply an urban legend started on 4chan, which is a precursor to the more 8kun board which has many of our supporters but also has some uncorroborated stories that should probably not end up on the official websites.
Our research shows that consumers are demanding the sweet sweet taste of chicken. The only chicken that comes with our wonderful world is the taste of Chick-Fil-A. Australia demands chicken. It has been devastated by fires and its leadership is sub-par and the covid-19 pandemic originally hit it hard. It was almost responsible for killing beloved movie icon Tom Hanks. So for all that time, the Chick-Fil-A brand can make a great time in the wonderful world of Australia.
Because of this demand, we believe in shock and awe. Just put a chick-fil-a in every single thoroughfare and city and city block. We can start out with these 30 stores, but we are going to win more with the powerful circus music that makes our lives so much better. The initial investment should be $4 million but if we keep pushing it we can get more out of it. We can get so much out of it. Chick-Fil-A is god. Chick-Fil-A is the only begotten son of Jesus Christ Superstar. Chick-Fil-A is a prophet venture that will bring peace and harmony and the second coming of Jesus to the world and no one has to ascend to Heaven in any cloud or rapture. We will just have that chicken for them.
The main points of the investment include the office. We need an office in Australia, maybe in Melbourne where the first Chick-Fil-A restaurant is making all the mouths water and all the women scream for the glory of the Jesus. However, we can also put the office in Sydney as that’s the capital and the opera house is really pretty. The office can be a building, but we can make due with a few floors of a building at first. We need to see where all the chicken franchises go in this monitor world. We need to marvel at the wonders of a chicken place. Make that chicken. That chicken is going to be good.
One thing that we should think about with our building is to avoid any Belko Experiment shenanigans. We need to hire the best people to work in these offices and if we are hiring the best people then we need to make sure that no one decides to lock up the building and create a battle royale scenario where we expect our employees to kill each other. That would be truly counterproductive. Granted, Chick-Fil-A has some of the most loyal and wonderful employees in the world, employees who truly know that they are going to heaven because that’s just the way that we operate in these times. So if we did ask them to kill each other for an experiment, they would certainly be armed with the knowledge that they are going to heaven.
However, the main thing is that there should be an office building or at least a few floors of an office to make certain that everything is totally working in the right way. There’s a great deal of wonderful things that we can do by making certain that there are several franchises and we can have people overlooking many of the franchises. We are going to need an army of accountants, insurance people, distribution professionals and supply chain workers.
We are also going to need some serious marketing. Australia wants Chick-Fil-A. Australia needs the godly Chicken but there is a great deal of baggage that Chick-fil-a is bring to Australia and this is going to be a great deal of issues. Australia only recently legalized same sex marriage and there might be a great deal of pushback to the same sex marriage stance, but that doesn’t mean that Chick-Fil-A should simply come into the country and assume that everyone is going to be happy with us. There was a great deal of fighting over same sex marriage and Chick-Fil-A now wants to stay out of all same sex marriage discussions. The LGBT community doesn’t like us. The anti-LGBT community loves us a little too much.
We are trying to reach out to the people who are neutral mostly about LGBT issues. They might believe in gay marriage but they don’t want to get too bent out of shape over where they eat chicken. They might not like homosexuals but they are not going to choose their chicken based on who is giving money.
Basically, we need marketing to get that Chick-Fil-A brand out. We need this marketing in order make certain that everyone knows just how special our chicken is. We are also going to make certain that the public relations is the fact that we want everyone to know that we like everyone. We will take everyone’s money.
The rate of return should be 10% the first year but we are going to be in it for the long haul. There are several costs that will have to do with operation and the ways that the franchise owners will be part of the Chick-Fil-A family. As family members, Chick-Fil-A needs to be able to work with the owners in order to help them. Chick-Fil-A needs to take care of its family and if the owners fall down, Chick-Fil-A needs to pick them up and therefore make certain that there is a fund in order to let the managers fail without falling into poverty.
Overall, this is a wonderful opportunity and an entire continent that is hungry for chicken. They want our chicken. There might be an issue of asking whether Chick-Fil-A is paying its fair share of taxes, which could arise given hostile reactions to Chick-Fil-A throughout the world. However, Chick-Fil-A is more than capable of paying a significant amount to local tax designations. The tax transparency acts of the government may prove problematic but there’s a great deal of corporate tax issues.
However, we are going to be lobbying the Australian government to make certain that we get the deal that McDonald’s got. We are a corporate body that can do anything. We have the lawyers and we have the accountants. We have the jobs. What are they going to do? Make us pay taxes? No, some socialists within the Australian community will complain about us but as long as Jeff Bezos is walking up and down in the world, we can simply sail by as a corporation that doesn’t pay taxes. There are enough tax shelters in the world that we can simply let those loopholes work in our favor.
We are working on a public relations campaign in America for our tax breaks and it’s based on the fact that Jackie Chan was also using loopholes to not pay his taxes. Jackie Chan is a beloved movie star with a lot of troubling issues in his past and present. He has many children that he never talks to. He is really the most awful neglectful dad and you would think that his illegitimate children having eventual access to his vast fortunes would make them happy but nope, they all want to have memories where they are playing catch with Jackie Chan. He was busy. He’s also in full agreement with the Chinese government as they beat the hell out of Hong Kong protesters and float conspiracy theories about the CIA being behind everything.
Still his reputation is amazing. People love Jackie Chan. They remember his dressing up like a Japanese schoolgirl in that City Hunter movie. They respect his Proejct A. They may actually see another movie where he stars with Chris Tucker. Jackie Chan doesn’t pay his taxes. Jackie Chan doesn’t let the government play with his money. So if Jackie Chan can get away with it even though he hasn’t done anything worth talking about in years, why not Chick-Fil-A a restaurant that serves delicious and tantalizing chicken. With Chick-Fil-A the ability to operate without paying taxes will be a right of passage and a privilege for the hundreds of loyal customers. Bow down to Chick-Fil-A.
The taxes are even more important because the minimum wage in Australia is $19.49 and while this is only $13.58 in American dollars, this is also a problem when it comes to making certain that we make those profits as we cannot price our chicken at a higher rate to make up for the work in our world. The Australian minimum wage is equivalent to the minimum wage in many northern states with social services, but Chick-Fil-A operates as a family business and the family knows that we are going to make soft people comfortable in the ways of the world.
So Chick-Fil-A will be making better chicken but we are going to paying more than we assume that we have to pay when we are working in the Southern United States and this means that we are going to make certain that there are oodles of fun and games. We are also certain that we can pay that 30% tax but why bother when we are growing the Australian economy.
In the wake of the covid-19 pandemic, we think that there’s an economic world just opening up and moving all the ways to the malting Matilde waltzing Matilda. Australia will come be waltzing with Chick-Fil-A.
We are certain that we are going to establish a landmark outpost in Australia. We will have some remittance that is not remittance. It will stay in Australia because we are going to make certain that there is an empire. The subsidiary plans to send net cash flows back to the parent firm at the end of each year. The Australian government does not place restrictions on cash flows back to parent company, with the exception of audits in order to make certain that no money is being laundered for the purpose of terrorism, human trafficking or organized crime.
Chick-Fil-A stands against all terrorism in every form. Some have recently accused Chick-Fil-A of supporting terrorism because of Chick-Fil-A donating to the Southern Poverty Law Center, a watchdog group that monitors hate groups throughout America and the world. The Family Research Center certainly has made a great deal out of the ways that Chick-Fil-A is no longer helping them out. However, one should note that only the most heinous individuals and groups think that the SPLC is a terrorist organization. This is a depressing thought to think that there are people out there that hate people so much that a group dedicated to ending hate is a place for terrorists.
Chick-Fil-A does not approve of prostitution. It also does not approve of human trafficking. Were Chick-Fil-A to find out that any of its restaurants were used for the trafficking of human beings, Chick-Fil-A would not profit from these trafficking. The fact that older men might use the Chick-Fil-A for a place to groom young girls and convince them to run away to the world of prostitution is something that Chick-Fil-A takes very seriously and Chick-Fil-A may have to make certain that there’s a great deal of monitoring throughout the restaurants.
Finally, there are some studies that state that Chick-Fil-A is addictive. However, Chick-Fil-A is perfectly legal and remitting the profits back to America will be ok as long as we are selling the chicken. The addictive chicken is fine. Granted, fast food restaurants are oasis locations for people to sell cocaine and marijuana in the bathroom and parking lot, but Chick-Fil-A will not share the profits with its employees. The employees will be making minimum wage so Chick-Fil-A understand that there will be enterprising young people who will make different incomes while on the job, be it cocaine sales in the parking lot or handjobs in the bathroom. Chick-Fil-A can turn a blind eye to these things because there’s a great deal of believable deniability in the actions. Chick-Fil-A believes that its employees need to be happy and fulfill their bliss whether that means screenwriting or Amway.
The exchange rate means that the minimum wage in Australia is comparable to the minimum wage in America, meaning that we are basically paying $13 for the minimum wage workers. This means that the minimum wage workers are going to have a great time in the Chick-Fil-A world because they are getting paid for the ways that we are working through the method. The equipment will be less expensive throughout the world and this means that Chick-Fil-A can definitely work within the context of an exchange rate.
We are working with the belief that these Chick-Fil-A franchises will be wildly successful but we will also be working to understand that there’s a great deal of salvage. We can convince the Australian government to buy up our offices and our equipment and our restaurants at 30% but we are Chick-Fil-A. We are going to be the place of kitsch and wonder. Our plan is to revamp the restaurant chain with slightly different images and mottos every decade. This means that every single Chick-Fil-A is going to be an icon of true and wondrous nostalgia. So if things fail we can sell all the Chick-Fil-A salt shakers and equipment to a willing group of restaurant owners and major customers.
Finally, Chick Fil-A is a juggernaut in the American fast food industry but has had trouble expanding into international businesses, partially due to its Christian branding, but also due to the ability of chicken sandwiches to translate to other cultures. Since Australia is primarily build upon European cultures, the chicken sandwich is still going to be popular. We need to make certain that Australia is the next big place for chicken sandwiches. The great actors of our generation are coming out of Australia. We want them to be able to eat a chicken sandwich closer to home.
Ciment S. (Jun 23, 2020). People are slamming Chick-Fil-A’s CEO for shining a black man’s shoes onstage in a bizarre display of repentance and shame. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/chick-fil-a-ceo-criticized-shinin-black-mans-shoes-repent-2020-6
Elphick L. (Mar 5, 2019). Marriage equality was momentous, but there is still much to do to progress LGBTI + rights in Australia. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/marriage-equality-was-momentous-but-there-is-still-much-to-do-to-progress-lgbti-rights-in-australia-110786
Khadem N. (Jun 1, 2017). McDonald’s may be hit by the diverted profits tax: For now it pays low tax on royalty income. The Sidney Morning Herald.
Mehta H (Nov 18, 2019). Mike Huckabee: Chick-Fil-A is betraying customers by avoiding anti-LGBTQ groups. Friendly Atheist.
Oporto (2020) How much to own a franchise in Australia. Oporto. https://franchising.oporto.com.au/news-and-updates/faqs/how-much-to-own-a-franchise/#:~:text=Average%20Australian%20franchise%20business%20start%2Dup%20costs&text=According%20to%20the%20Franchising%20Australia,from%20%24287%2C500%20for%20retail%20franchises
Peterson H. (Apr 22, 2017). It costs nearly nothing ot open a Chick-Fil-A but there’s a catch. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/what-it-costs-to-open-a-chick-fil-a-2017-4
Sachitanand, R (Jul 17, 2016). Eight countries have declared war on junk food. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/nation-world/eight-countries-that-have-declared-war-on-junk-food/slideshow/53245785.cms
Thusius A. (Jul 6, 2020). Limestone Correctional Facility employee accused of pulling gun in Madison Chick-Fil-A drive-thru. WAAY 31. https://www.waaytv.com/content/news/Limestone-Correctional-Facility-employee-accused-of-pulling-gun-in-Madison-Chick-fil-A-drive-thru--571645441.html